2000 Forest Insect
Conditions for the Southern Region
hypertext links within the narratives (e.g., Dogwood Anthracnose)
will take visitors to the on-line publication, The Health of Southern
Forests that displays additional graphics and discusses the biology
and southern history of the causal agent in more detail. Not all causal
agents are linked. Non-bolded links provide for within-document
Conditions in Brief
In the year 2000,
weather again profoundly influenced the course of events in southern forests.
Some of the most severe extended dry periods in recent memory exacerbated
a host of pest conditions ranging from pine bark beetles to annosum root
disease to oak decline. The drought aggravated some of the heaviest infestations
red oak borer infestations ever recorded in Arkansas Ozarks.The dry weather
also inhibited development of the Entomophaga fungus which helped
to hold gypsy moth populations in check last year. Consequently, there
was a resurgence of gypsy moth defoliation in 2000. Paradoxically,
the drought helped retard certain fungus diseases such as dogwood anthracnose
and damping off in nurseries.
Southern pine beetle
activity increased dramatically across much of the region, with Alabama,
South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, and Virginia all experiencing at least
triple the losses recorded in 1999.
pine, longleaf pine, slash pine, shortleaf pine
Again in 2000, summer
drought throughout the southern states resulted in higher-than-normal
black turpentine beetle activity. This insect is most evident in
trees stressed by drought, logging injury, root compaction, and similar
disturbance. High activity was reported in Florida, Louisiana, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee , and Texas.
Louisiana and Virginia
Host(s): Live oak
and other hardwoods
Buck moth defoliation
of live oak has been a problem in New Orleans for a number of years.
It continues to be locally abundant in the city and of particular concern
in the Federal Historic Districts. Defoliation was widespread in
2000 and moth populations have been on the increase for the past 3 years.
Pheromone trapping of adult moths is being used to identify hot spots
for further evaluation. In Virginia, populations routinely fluctuate
considerably, and were at locally high densities in 2000.
North Carolina and
In both Virginia
and North Carolina, local outbreaks declined. In recent years, the
City of Charlotte, North Carolina sustained heavy defoliation requiring
direct control, but this year, population levels were very low, and no
control was deemed necessary. Fall cankerworm populations declined
to the lowest recorded levels in a decade in northeast Tennessee in 2000.
Carolina, South Carolina and Texas
Host(s): Tupelo gum,
on 46,000 acres of forested wetlands in Ascension, Livingston, St. James
and St. John Parishes in southeastern Louisiana. Defoliation was severe
on 32,000 acres resulting in growth reduction of approximately 50% or
radial growth. In South Carolina, 257,610 acres were defoliated.
Damage was worst in the Conagree, Santee, Pee Dee, and Wacamaw River Basins.
Sixty thousand acres were completely defoliated along the Roanoke River
in North Carolina. In Texas, local infestations of the forest tent caterpillar
occurred, but no serious outbreaks developed.
pine tip moth,
pine, shortleaf pine
Tip moth problems
were most pronounced in Virginia and North Carolina. North Carolina
infestations were worsened by unusually dry weather. In Virginia, the
tip moth seems to have evolved into a persistent problem in the coastal
plain and piedmont. South Carolina populations declined slightly from
1999. Tip moth populations increased in southwest Tennessee and
on the Cumberland Plateau on planted loblolly pine in 2000. Some
plantations showed over 50% infestation. In Texas, tip moth infestations
remained static (about 75 percent tips infested). Infestations increased
markedly in July-September after the drought took hold.
Hosts: Southern pines
Colaspis beetle damage
was reported on 9,000 acres in Carroll and Hemphill Counties in Mississippi
in 2000. This beetle also caused significant, but localized defoliation
to pine plantations in central Louisiana. In Texas, an area of about
3,800 acres in Hardin and Jefferson counties was defoliated.
I. grandicollis, I. avulsus
pine, shortleaf pine, slash pine
during the growing season across much of the South led to another year
of higher-than-normal levels of Ips pine engraver beetle activity.
Small groups of Ips-killed trees were scattered throughout the
forest stands, consequently losses are difficult to quantify. In
the Gulf coastal states, activity increased into late summer and early
fall. In Arkansas Ips mortality was heavy, and scattered as usual,
except in CRP plantations in the Delta where fairly large groups of trees
were killed. Many urban pines were also killed. Louisiana surveys in 2000
found 75 multiple-tree infestations. In addition, thousands of small spots
and single trees were scattered statewide. Engraver damage was judged
to be comparable to southern pine beetle damage in most years. Mississippi
reported a great deal of damage in younger plantations, especially into
the fall. Ips activity was high for a second straight year in Texas
in 2000, particularly on the western edge of the piney woods region. A
survey of 2 million acres in 4 counties estimated over $1.8 million in
timber loss, mostly in sawtimber stands. In the Carolinas and Florida,
drought predisposed trees to unusually heavy pine engraver losses.
In South Carolina, Ips spots sometimes numbered 500 trees. Infestations
were often located in overstocked, overmature trees. Frequently,
South Carolina Ips, black turpentine beetle, and southern pine
beetle infestations were found together. Florida Ips losses
were exceptionally high compared to the norm. Here too, damage was
typically associated with tress being stressed by a variety of factors
ranging from overstocking to overmaturity to root compaction.
sp., Diprion sp.
Louisiana, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia
Several species of
the pine sawfly were active across the South in 2000. Defoliation
by the loblolly pine sawfly (Neodiprion taedae linearis) occurred
in 2 areas in Arkansas, although it was light. In Louisiana, the loblolly
pine sawfly outbreak in the north-central part of the state dramatically
subsided Populations of the loblolly pine sawfly declined in west
and middle Tennessee. In Virginia, the loblolly pine sawfly was
evident at various locations throughout the central coastal plain and
piedmont. Infestations of the blackheaded pine sawfly (N. excitans)
declined to low levels in east Texas counties. In Florida, the redheaded
pine sawfly (N. lecontei) caused severe (>75%) defoliation in
relatively small, but numerous scattered areas in 2000. Overall,
Florida activity was more evident than in any time over the past 10 years.
Damage was most pronounced in young (<15 years) longleaf and slash
pine plantations. Because of the drought that exacerbated sawfly
defoliation impact, one industrial landowner aerially treated a large
plantation. In North Carolina, this same pest species persisted in the
western part of the state, but there was no noticeable population change
over last year. Populations of the red-headed pine sawfly increased
on Virginia pine Christmas trees in north-central Tennessee and on loblolly
pines in west Tennessee.
red oak, black oak
Red oak borer attacks
increased dramatically in 2000 in north central Arkansas in association
with severe drought (for the third consecutive year). Populations are
now at unprecedented levels. Damage was evident and contributed to drought-related
mortality in red oaks. Degrade in lumber from attacked trees can lower
North Carolina, Texas
Weevil activity remained
low in Texas during 2000. This is probably because most plantings in 2000
were actually replantings of trees killed during the 1998-1999 drought
(the delay for replanting ameliorated the risk of weevil damage).
Reproduction weevil activity in North Carolina remained light to moderate
throughout the state.
pine, shortleaf pine, slash pine, longleaf pine, Virginia pine, eastern
white pine [return]
In 2000, southern
pine beetle (SPB) populations rapidly escalated in the Southern
Region. The mild winter and extended drought exacerbated the SPB
situation by providing optimum habitat for this native forest pest.
The outbreak currently covered portions of Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and
Virginia on federal, State and private ownerships (map
showing southern pine beetle outbreak status by county -- text-only
data). It will likely go down as one of the largest outbreaks in history
(chart showing SPB infestations for 1999-2000.
Also see table below). On the contrary there was not even a single
SPB infestation in the entire states of Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas and
Oklahoma. Compared to 1999, the number of SPB infestations in 2000
increased by over three times (13,036 spots to 57,175 spots) and the number
affected acres increased by almost 2 times (12,342,415 acres to 7,055,000
The most heavily
impacted area was the state of Alabama. There were over 25,000 infestations
statewide and 58 of Alabama's 67 counties experienced outbreak level populations.
Due to depressed timber markets, drought and increasing number of SPB
spots, only 40 percent of of the spots were controlled. Many of
the spots were controlled using cut and leave. The northwestern
part of the state was most affected with 5 counties detecting more than
1,000 spots each. The National Forests in Alabama (especially the
Bankhead and Oakmulgee Ranger Districts) were heavily impacted.
Over 8,000 acres of pines were killed on the Sipsey Wilderness alone.
The southern Appalachian
Mountain area in Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, Kentucky and Virginia
was also devastated. Periodically, SPB attacks hosts other than
its favored southern yellow pines. Such was the case in 2000 in
the mountains where eastern white pine was commonly killed, and beetles
actually attacked Norway spruce and eastern hemlock in western North Carolina.
The outbreak in southwestern and Virginia was the first in 25 years.
The losses were very very significant on the Daniel Boone National Forest
in southern Kentucky. The beetles killed between 75 to 90 percent
of the habitat in the clusters of the red-cockaded woodpecker, a federally
listed endangered species. The beetle was in outbreak status in
roughly the entire eastern half of Tennessee, as well as the counties
In South Carolina,
financial loses reached $40 million – the second worst year of financial
loses on record. The Piedmont area of the state experienced the
highest losses. In Georgia, 13 northern counties were in outbreak
status. Infestations in the northern Atlanta metro area kept urban foresters
and arborists busy.
In Florida, SPB activity
also reached record proportions. There were more infestations (1,172)
in more counties (21), causing more dead trees (1.2 million) at a greater
financial cost ($15.7 million) than ever previously recorded in the state.
Impact was exacerbated by severe drought that stressed the trees.
The urban-wildland interface outbreak in the Brooksville-Hernando County
area was especially challenging to foresters and extension personnel.
Southern Pine Beetle Infestations by State 1999 versus 2000
pines and hardwoods
In 2000, localized
defoliation of pine plantations occurred in east Texas and central Louisiana
on sites with deep sandy soil. Populations of these ants remin fairly
static from year-to-year. A new ant bait, Volcano®, was given
a special local need registration by the Texas Department of Agriculture
last fall. A single application can eliminate an ant colony in as little
as 4 weeks.
oak leaf caterpillar,
Thousands of acres
across five counties were defoliated in Florida. While there was no evidence
of mortality, the outbreak was a serious nuisance and generated many public
inquiries to forestry and extension officials. Variable oak leaf
caterpillar defoliated over 900 acres of oak/hickory and oak/pine forests
in southwest Tennessee in 2000.
North Carolina, Tennessee,
Fraser fir has a
very limited range in the southern Appalachian Mountains and appears almost
exclusively in pure stands on the highest mountain peaks or in combination
with red spruce at somewhat lower elevations (map
showing spruce/fir distribution). Since the first introduction
of the balsam woolly adelgid, approximately
64,700 acres of Fraser fir have been affected. The insect attacks
trees of all age classes, but prefers the older fir trees. Adelgid
populations were again high in 1999.
North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
especially oak species
In 2000, aerial surveys
detected over 70,000 acres of defoliation by gypsy
moth in Virginia (map showing gypsy
moth defoliation area). Due in part to drought, the effects
of the an Entomoghaga maimaiga fungal outbreak subsided and gypsy
moth populations rebounded throughout its eastern range. Consequently,
the potential for limited local area defoliation in Virginia is greater
for next year than it was for 2000.
In 1998, North Carolina
and Georgia, 23,000 acres in and around the town of Highlands, NC were
treated as part of a gypsy moth eradication project. Follow-up trapping
showed very few moths and no treatment is planned there in 2001.
Tennessee lists three
infested counties (Scott, Cumberland, and Sevier) all of which have ground
eradication projects underway. Two counties (Monroe and Campbell)
showed noteworthy increases in trap catches, triggering heavier trapping
grid densities in 2001.
In Arkansas, delimiting
trapping was successful in eradicating gypsy moth from Carroll and Marion
counties (no moths were caught in the 2000 trapping effort). In Newton
County, 10 male moths were caught and another year of delimiting trapping
is planned for 2001 in that county. In addition, an 80 square mile detection
trapping block surrounding the delimiting trapping area to help define
current infestation boundaries. No treatments are planned.
The Gypsy Moth Slow-the-Spread
Pilot Project moved toward operational status in 1999. Trapping
and treatments were carried out in 8 states from North Carolina to Wisconsin.
Within the boundaries of the Southern Region, 9,090 acres were treated
in eastern North Carolina and 24,640 acres in eastern and western Virginia.
Additional monitoring and treatment activities will be carried out in
Fiscal year 2000
was the first year that Congress provided full funding to the Forest Service
for operational implementation of the strategy to slow the spread of the
gypsy moth (STS). The integration of STS into the USDA’s national
policy for managing the gypsy moth will reduce spread rates of this non-native
pest from a historical average of 13 miles per year to less than 5 miles
per year. The USDA (Forest Service and Animal Plant Health Inspection
Service) and state partners located along the leading edge of gypsy moth
populations cooperatively implement STS.
Currently the states
of Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky,
Virginia and North Carolina are actively involved in STS and Minnesota
and Iowa will join the program in the near future. A band totaling
approximately 56 million acres was brought under comprehensive management
during 2000. An additional 34 million acres behind the active management
band were monitored less intensively to measure the programs effect on
During 1999, STS
state partners detected and delineated more than 100 distinct gypsy moth
colonies within the STS area, which triggered treatment of 177,842 acres
during the spring and summer of 2000.
STS state partners
deployed 75,000 pheromone traps during 2000 to evaluate the effectiveness
of the 2000 treatments, and to detect or delineate newly established colonies
that may require treatment in 2001.
North Carolina and
and Carolina hemlock
This insect threatens
the entire range of eastern hemlock, and is found throughout Virginia
wherever hemlock is abundant with the exception of 6 counties in the southwestern
portion of the state. There are also six North Carolina counties
infested. Two new counties, Alamance and Alleghany, were added to
the list in 2000 (map showing hemlock woolly
adelgid occurrence by county -- text-only data).
Puerto Rico, Virgin
and many other species
The pink hibiscus
mealybug (PHM) continued to spread in 2000, and has now reached over 25
Caribbean Islands. It was detected in Puerto Rico in 1997, but has
been confined to the eastern region. Frequent monitoring surveys
are conducted, assisted by the Digital Arborist. To date no infestations
have been identified on the Caribbean National Forest. It appears
that parasitoids may have been introduced simultaneously with the mealybug,
reducing the impacts in Puerto Rico. With support from the USDA
Forest Service and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, the Puerto
Rico Department of Agriculture continues to rear and release parasitoids.
Surveys show that population reductions of 85-90 percent have been achieved
at the parasite release sites. An increase in populations of the
predaceous ladybug, Cryptolaemus, has also served to reduce damage
and limit the spread of the mealybug. The PHM thus far has not been
detected in Florida.
and growth loss occurred throughout the South in 2000 due to annosus
root disease. (map showing annosus
hazard ratings) Alabama and Texas reported continuing localized
losses, with the Texas infections occurring mostly in the northeast corner
of the state. In North Carolina, annosus root disease killed southern
pine in scattered areas, and was also reported on coastal red cedar. Mountain
sites in western North Carolina also saw pockets of mortality. In
South Carolina, annosus root disease was responsible for mortality across
5,000 acres of Conservation Reserve Program lands. Impact was exacerbated
quercuum f. sp. fusiforme
pines, especially loblolly and slash pines
rust is the most damaging disease of loblolly and slash pine in
the South. Other pine species may also be infected, but little damage
or mortality occurs. An estimated 13.8 million acres of loblolly
and slash pine have at least 10 percent of the trees infected. Georgia
is the most heavily impacted state, with 4.6 million acres (49 percent
of host type) affected. Texas surveys showed that the disease has
declined during the past few years. Exceptionally dry weather over
much of the South over the last 2-3 years should have resulted in lower-than-normal
levels of new infections in young pines.
Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia
and shortleaf pines
continues to cause growth loss and mortality across the Piedmont areas
of the affected states. Shortleaf pine is highly susceptible while
loblolly pine is affected, but at a later age. Many of the stands
that were converted from shortleaf to loblolly to reduce the impact of
this disease are now reaching their age of susceptibility. These
stands are often attacked by bark beetles once weakened by the root infection.
North Carolina, South
Carolina, Tennessee, Texas
Host(s): Live and
Oak wilt continues
to be a devastating tree killer in 60 counties in central Texas.
Urban, suburban and rural oaks are affected. Live oak is a premier shade
tree species in the region and is highly valued for beauty, shade and
wildlife benefits. The Texas Forest Service completed the 13th
year of a cooperative suppression project. Since the project's inception,
more than 2.4 million feet (>450 miles) of barrier trenches have been
installed around 2,065 oak wilt infection centers in 34 counties.
Since its first confirmed appearance in South Carolina in 1998, oak wilt
has now appeared in six additional counties (7 total). In North
Carolina, activity has also been increasing for the past two years. Surveys
in 2000 showed that there are 33 active oak wilt infection centers involving
53 confirmed infected trees in five western North Carolina counties. This
area has been documented as having active oak wilt since 1951. In
2000, White and Putnam Counties in Tennessee were aerially surveyed to
detect oak wilt activity;. no new infection centers were discovered.
North Carolina, Tennessee,
Beech bark disease
was not found in any additional counties in 2000, but the disease continues
to intensify within the currently affected areas (map
showing beech bark disease occurence by county -- text-only
data). Beech bark disease was first reported in the Great Smoky
Mountains National Park in 1994. However, the first mortality in
the South was reported as early as the mid-1980's in northern Virginia.
This is well outside the previous known distribution. Tree mortality
continues to intensify in Tennessee along the Appalachian Trail and in
Blount, Cocke, and Sevier Counties within the Great Smoky Mountains National
Park. The disease has intensified at a greater rate than predicted, and
is spreading downslope toward the Cherokee National Forest.
mortality continues to occur at low severity level in urban and wild populations
Diseases: Origin Unknown
This disease has
been in the South for at least 40 years (map
showing butternut canker occurrence by county -- text-only
data) and is believed to have killed 3 of every 4 butternuts in North
Carolina and Virginia. The fungus kills trees of all ages. Butternut
canker is expected to spread and kill most of the resource, including
regeneration. The species will be replaced by other species on these sites
(e.g., black walnut). It is too early to project the benefits of selection
and breeding. However, trees exhibiting resistance have been found in
Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia.
Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
anthracnose continues to intensify within its range, although
the hot, dry summer weather in 2000 reduced its impact in some states.
The cool, wet fall and winter will likely increase the risk in 2001.
Three new counties with dogwood anthracnose infection in urban areas were
reported in 2000: They are: Harrison County in Kentucky, Lincoln
County in North Carolina, and Portsmouth County in Virginia. (map
showing dogwood anthracnose occurrence by county -- text-only
f. sp. pini
Only scattered trees
across the Region are infected, but impacts can be locally significant.
In Georgia, pitch canker continues to be associated with pine plantations
near chicken houses. The ammonia released from the brood houses
creates conditions on the trees conducive to infection. The damage is
usually confined to the area within the plantation nearest exhaust fans.
All species of pine (slash, longleaf, and loblolly) are affected.
Chicken houses are becoming a common sight throughout the coastal plain
of Georgia. Thus, problems with pitch canker are expected to increase
there, especially during droughts. Similar problems have been noted
in North Carolina when chicken waste has been used as fertilizer in pine
abiotic and biotic influences
Host(s): Oaks, other
The severe summer
drought of 1998-1999 continued into 2000. Oaks were particularly
impacted in the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas where widespread
red oak mortality occurred throughout the north-central part of the state.
Oak decline was also severe in
the southern Appalachain Mountains, with North Carolina and Virginia incurring
heavy losses on south-facing slopes. Similarly, Tennessee noted
increased loss of both red and white oak, with white oaks especially hard
hit. In Georgia, oak mortality was heaviest on rocky ridges and
side slopes in the mountains. Drought is just one component of oak
decline, a syndrome resulting in dieback and mortality of dominant and
co-dominant mature oaks. Other causal factors are stressors, including
frost, defoliation by insects (including the gypsy moth) and secondary
pests such as Armillaria root disease and two-lined chestnut borer, and
hypoxylon canker. Oak decline and gypsy moth have been shown to
interact: severe defoliation by gypsy moth can induce oak decline in previously
unaffected areas; and, in areas of pre-existing oak decline, gypsy moth
defoliation causes increased mortality. Host, age and site conditions
also play a role. In the Ozark and Ouachita Mountain areas, an extremely
high population of red oak borer is associated with oak decline and mortality
(see Native Insects, Red oak borer). Oak decline
is on the rise in Tennessee, but at a lower rate of increase than in 1999.
This syndrome is believed to have caused 2% mortality in some southwest
Tennessee counties. Impact in 2000 was exacerbated by drought, which caused
greatest impacts on dry, south-facing slopes. The syndrome is frequently
associated with Hypoxylon canker, especially in western and middle
Insects and Diseases
amatella, D. clarioralis, D. disclusa, D. merkeli
Coneworms again caused
approximately a 25 percent cone loss in untreated areas of a pine seed
orchard in Texas in 2000.
f. sp. pini
About 10 percent
of the cone crop in the Texas state seed orchard was affected by pitch
canker in 2000.
corculus, Tetyra bipustata
Seedbugs were abundant
in untreated pine seed orchards in Texas in 2000, damaging about 24 percent
cone gall midge,
Host(s): Slash pine
An unusual outbreak
of this extremely infrequent pest problem continued to cause losses in
one industrial seed orchard in Nassau County for the second year in a
row. Among susceptible clones examined, average infestation rates
of 1st year conelets ranged from 19-65%. Individual ramets
exhibited infestation rates of 0-100%. Most infested conelets fail
to reach maturity or yield any viable seed at harvest. The estimated
value of seed lost in 2000 was $4,600.
Host(s): Slash pine
Cone rust continued
to cause problems in several industrially-owned slash pine seed orchards.
Infection levels ranged form 4-11%.
Rhizoctonia needle blight,
Losses were reported
from North Carolina in 2000, but not at abnormal levels. Over 85,000
seedlings were lost to this disease in 2000 in South Carolina’s
Taylor State Tree Nursery.
and Pythium sp.
Damping off is the
most common disease problem facing southern nurseries. Loss of seedlings
to damping-off varies greatly from year to year owing to the interaction
of pathogenic fungi (species of Fusarium, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and
Phytopthora) and environmental conditions. Seedling losses can be
severe when germination is slow due to cold, wet weather. Losses in 2000
were lower than normal due to the very dry weather which inhibits fungus
development. Nevertheless, North Carolina reported scattered damping
off in southern yellow pine and white pine seedbeds.
Host(s): All species
prevailed over much of the South again in 2000, for the third consecutive
In Texas, temperatures
also reached record high levels with 105-110 degrees occurring over several
days at a stretch. Seedling mortality was high on many tracts planted
during the winter of 1999-2000. Cone mortality of 50% of second-year
cones in the state seed orchard near Jasper was attributed to the record
drought and heat. Drought has led to higher than normal populations if
Ips pine engraver beetles (see Native Insects, Pine
engraver beetle) and increased oak decline and dieback (see Declines/Complexes,
some of the worst drought on record. Georgia Forestry Commission officials
estimate that loblolly and slash pine seedling mortality averaged 30%.
Among longleaf pine seedlings, mortality sometimes reached 90%, but statewide,
survival rates averaged 36 percent. Nearly 149 million seedlings
died in Georgia due to drought. The estimated value of lost trees
was nearly $4.5 million. The drought, in combination with hypoxylon
canker, also killed an estimated 154,000 oaks in Georgia.
Drought was less
intense in Tennessee in 2000 than in the previous two summers, but the
cumulative effect caused continued mortality in the oak/hickory forest
type. In west Tennessee, the drought caused noticeable yellow poplar decline
In Florida, a third
successive year of drought occurred across virtually the entire year.
As a result, the Sunshine State saw a dramatic increase in stress related
pest activity and associated tree death/damage. Among the secondary
insects and diseases proliferating in the weakened trees were Ips
beetles, black turpentine beetle, redheaded pine sawfly, Kermes scale,
two-lined chestnut borer, ambrosia beetles, and hypoxylon canker.
For the third year
in a row, fire (both wildfire and prescribed burns) generated an inordinate
incidence of tree mortality. This situation was aggravated by the drought.
Besides outright fire-caused mortality, many trees succumbed to secondary
insects and diseases that exploited the trees’ fire weakened condition.
Massive wildfires throughout Oklahoma from August through October, 2000
caused mortality, but also predisposed trees to a variety of opportunistic
pathogens and insects. The long-term effects of the fires will be monitored
Host(s): All species
Although there was
no noteworthy flooding in North Carolina in 2000, foresters continued
to monitor stands damaged in 1999 for secondary insect and disease problems
such as southern pine beetle and root rots. These problems have
yet to manifest themselves, but history has shown that in time, stressed
forest stands will develop problems associated with insects and diseases
that take advantage of the weakened state of the trees.
Host(s): All species
A March 25 thunderstorm
near Marchall, Texas dropped several inches of marble-sized hail across
3,000 acres in Harrison County causing minor tree damage.
Host(s): All species
The winter of 2000
may well go down in history as the year of ice for several western Gulf
states. Two major ice storms hit portions of NE Texas, SE Oklahoma, and
much of central and southern Arkansas. The storms occurred on December
14 and 24. One to two inches of ice accumulation bowed, broke, and
uprooted trees. Hundreds of thousands of acres of young pine plantations
were completely destroyed and will have to be replanted. Texas authorities
estimated a loss of $46 million in timber values in 4 northeastern counties.
In Oklahoma, widespread damage to trees was reported across about 6 million
acres in 39 counties. The long-term impacts of this storm will be
a significant factor in Oklahoma’s forests for the next 5-7 years.
pines and hardwoods
An April 23 (Easter
Sunday) tornado touched down in Harrison County, Texas near Marshall causing
a narrow, 5-mile-long strip of broken and twisted timber. A tornado
damaged 500 acres of red oak, white oak, and yellow pines in a north central
state forest in Stewart County.
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