1Principal Entomologist, Texas Forest Service, Lufkin,
and Pest Control Forester, North Carolina Division of Forest
In 1974 the U.S. Department of Agriculture initiated the Combined Forest
Pest Research and
Development Program, an inter-agency effort that concentrated on the Douglas-fir tussock
in the West, on the southern pine beetle in the South, and on the gypsy moth in the
The work reported in this publication was funded in part by the Program. This handbook is
in a series on the southern pine beetle.