-- Adults and nymphs feed on white oaks from Alabama and the Carolinas
to southern Canada. By the end of August, the leaves may be discolored
and perform little photosynthesis.
Insect (figure 37). -- Nymphs are black and covered with spines.
Adults have broad, transparent, lacelike wing covers; flattened; and
about .25 inch (6 mm) long.
Injury. -- Infested leaves have chlorotic flecks on the upper side
of the leaf. Heavily infested trees may be partly defoliated, especially
during dry weather.
-- Adults overwinter in bark crevices and similar protected areas of
their host. During the spring they attach eggs to the underside of leaves.
Upon hatching, nymphs begin feeding on the underside of the leaf. A
complete cycle from egg to adult may occur in 30 to 45 days; several
generations occur each year. In late summer, all active stages may feed
-- Natural enemies are usually effective. Chemical controls may be needed
on shade and ornamental trees.