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Heavy timber damage by the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) (SPB) and recent intensive research have resulted in the need to identify this subcorticular insect and its insect associates. Associates include insects reported to be predaceous or parasitic as well as those merely using the same habitat. No extensive reference collections exist that can be shared by researchers, technicians, students, and others concerned with such identification. We developed this handbook to present some of the more commonly found insect associates of the SPB.This guide by no means represents all the insects associated with SPB. Our selection was based on a survey of entomologists and others experienced with SPB research: they indicated which insect associates of the beetle would be most representative and helpful in their work. Of course, we made the final selections and our biases are reflected herein. It is our belief, however, that the 48 species, or species groups, covered in the handbook comprise the important insect associates of the SPB encountered in the southeastern United States.

Using this Handbook

To use the handbook, turn to the first page listing specimens in the insect order. Then, compare the unknown species with the descriptions and photographs or drawings given. Although the photographs depict natural color, preserved specimens—especially those in alcohol—may not have exactly the same color as those in the pictures. All sizes given are average length.The brief written descriptions are not intended to be taxonomically complete, but to pinpoint the features most useful in distinguishing a species or species group. Where minute characteristics are required to distinguish species, or where taxonomic problems exist, the genus alone is listed. Some prior training in entomology is assumed.

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