Heavy timber damage by the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann)
(SPB) and recent intensive research have resulted in the need to identify this
subcorticular insect and its insect associates. Associates include insects reported to be
predaceous or parasitic as well as those merely using the same habitat. No extensive
reference collections exist that can be shared by researchers, technicians, students, and
others concerned with such identification. We developed this handbook to present some of
the more commonly found insect associates of the SPB.This guide by no means represents all
the insects associated with SPB. Our selection was based on a survey of entomologists and
others experienced with SPB research: they indicated which insect associates of the beetle
would be most representative and helpful in their work. Of course, we made the final
selections and our biases are reflected herein. It is our belief, however, that the 48
species, or species groups, covered in the handbook comprise the important insect
associates of the SPB encountered in the southeastern United States.
Using this Handbook
To use the handbook, turn to the first page listing specimens in the insect order.
Then, compare the unknown species with the descriptions and photographs or drawings given.
Although the photographs depict natural color, preserved specimensespecially those
in alcoholmay not have exactly the same color as those in the pictures. All sizes
given are average length.The brief written descriptions are not intended to be
taxonomically complete, but to pinpoint the features most useful in distinguishing a
species or species group. Where minute characteristics are required to distinguish
species, or where taxonomic problems exist, the genus alone is listed. Some prior training
in entomology is assumed.